Consolidated by German immigrants, the city was named after Hamburg , Germany.
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Novo Hamburgo's population is still predominantly of German descent. In the s, Novo Hamburgo received the nickname of "the national capital of shoes", attracting many athletes, tracks and companies connected to the sport. Nowadays, the city is the industrial center of the Sinos River Valley , the economy of which is based mainly on the manufacture of shoes and the associated leather goods supply chain.
The area of the city was first settled by Portuguese immigrants in the mid 18th century, but it would grow to the status of village only with the arrival of the first German immigrants in The Germans established a prosperous agricultural colony and eventually started to supply the state's main urban centers at that time with food. Some of the immigrants also brought handicraft skills, valuable for a self-sufficient, isolated economy, as the valley and the state were at that time.
In Novo Hamburgo, the first urban agglomeration appeared around the Hamburger Berg, circa , where there was a little commerce. At this time, the shoe industry was in full swing and there was an intense expansion of trade and an abundance of work for the service providers in the region. In this expansion prompted a group of men to create a committee with the goal of achieving emancipation for the district. Faced with this rejection the group decided to send the request to the state government. The governor at that time was Borges de Medeiros who subsequently asked the commission to submit a formal application including voter signatures requesting emancipation.
On the same day decree number was signed creating an administration with a constitutional basis and allowing for the nomination of a temporary mayor. The document gave a maximum period of two months to hold an election for mayor and councillors. Novo Hamburgo is part of the River Sinos basin. The city is divided into four basins, formed by Pampa creek, Cerquinho creek, Luiz Rau creek and Gauchinha creek.
Novo Hamburgo has four well defined seasons. Novo Hamburgo is most famous for its footwear industry. The city also has industries in the area of pharmacy, cosmetics, furniture, food, appliances, clothing, graphic art, electronics, chemical and constructions. This industry also spread into neighboring towns, with many tanneries, chemical plants and shoe component factories being opened. One example of this industry is the National Fair of Shoes held annually in Fenac. This fair was started locally in held in a small neighbourhood convention centre.
A new Industrial District is being planned in the area of Lomba Grande , however some locals have voiced concerns that this construction may have environmental implications. The export of shoes is currently worth about two billion dollars.
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Example of the service industry are cargo agents, brokers, export agents, trading companies as well as the presence of important banks. The school has sent students to the biggest cities of the country to work inplays and shows. The theatre was built in the campus II of the university. It is administered in partnership with Opus Promotions. The teaching material was poor and the provincial government was giving them little support.
The central government at the time had no interest in investing in education and therefore would not release funds to the different provinces. In there were only two public schools, in a school for girls was founded by a group of Nuns - The Engel Sisters located in the Hamburgo Velho neighborhood. The creation of this school was a big step for women's education, although still largely focused on traditional values such as child rearing and home care. In , the Priest Benedict Meienhofer organized the opening of a Catholic school for boys, which was called St.
Jacob's college. In , the year when Novo Hamburgo was emancipated, there were seven state schools in the city, with a total of students, one state school with 72 students and six private schools with students. In there were eight state schools, six city run schools and eight private schools, with the student population rising to 1, The Vargas Era — represented a significant advance in Brazilian education.
This educational revolution also had an impact in Novo Hamburgo. In , the city schools had grown to a total of 35, with a total of students. In the historical centre which is located in the Hamburgo Velho neighbourhood, there are still some half-timbered buildings constructed in the same technique, as the Community Schmitt-Presser Museum first exemplary technique protected by IPHAN in Brazil.
Also noteworthy is the neoclassical building of the Ernesto Frederico Scheffel Foundation. Notable buildings along this street are the St. Catherine College , the building of the former Frohsin Society , designed by the German architect Theo Wiederspahn, the homes of the families Richter, Klein, Momberger, Snel, and Grunner, This street is recognized by the City Master Plan as an area of historical and cultural interest.
Louis Gonzaga , and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Ascension , both historical constructions of the s. The latter follows the Gothic style, with pure forms of the original Gothic architecture. There are also dozens of eclectic houses distributed among this historical area, but these are not officially recognized. The city also presents some interesting examples of modernism, especially residences built in the period — It is considered environmentally protected area where the wetlands of the Sinos River is very important for the preservation of the ecosystem, both fauna as flora.
Lomba Grande also received the first German immigrants who settled in the Hemp Linen factory, then owned by the municipality of Sao Leopoldo. Today provides one of the main points of visiting the city, where the natural attractions of the neighborhood next to developments designed for leisure and tourism attracts many tourists.
There are restaurants offering food fresh from the colonial neighborhood itself. The neighborhood also has many cultural attractions such as churches , cemeteries and a roadmap that includes visits to artists. The German craftsmen eventually started to manufacture shoes and machinery on a large scale and in the s began to export goods, a process that transformed the city into a magnet for internal immigrants from impoverished areas around the state and the country.
The prevailing of toothache was higher among those individuals presenting cavity or teeth lost 2. The paradox of the observation of a severe oral health scenario among teenagers lies on the fact that both cavity and gingival inflammation can be avoided by adopting simple measures of prevention and control. In this manner, actions aimed at educating the individual as for oral health have a significant influence on the inversion of this situation, especially collaborating with promoting health by means of increasing autonomy for self-care 3.
However, the access to information, including oral health education, does not equally reach all sectors of society; areas with the lowest socioeconomic indicators present the lowest oral health indicators 4. Despite the number of works about oral health education described in literature, it is verified that several of them do not have appropriate planning. They are usually characterized as prompt actions, apart from the local reality, and do not make use of a methodology towards the building and acquisition of knowledge by the student.
According to Pauleto et al. There are few programs which show rupture strategies with more traditional and behavioral proposes, supported by communication and one-way practices which not enable the dialogue or the effective participation of the students, all necessary to build emancipative knowledge which fosters autonomy concerning oral health care. In what concerns health education for teenagers, these pedagogical techniques is even more essential. It is paramount to plan them accurately in order to arouse the interest and change of attitude, especially 6.
This aspect is supported by the observation that the adolescence comprehends a phase when the individual no longer wants to be treated as a child, neither have experience enough to have an adult behavior, and it is also punctuated by a complex bio-psychosocial growth process 7. Given the challenges of the above mentioned context, different organizations have strived for promoting educational activities in the so-called third sector, defined by literature with expressions such as "non-profit organizations", "volunteer organizations", "independent sector" "non-government organizations", "charity", "philanthropy", among other.
According to Franco 8 , it is attributable to these organization five characteristics in common: i they are not part of the formal structure of the State; ii they are not profitable; iii they are constituted by groups of citizens of the civil society as individuals; iv there are compulsory membership, and v they produce assets and services of collective use interest 8.
It is aimed at positively influencing on the life quality of both child and teenager, as well as their family core and the community they live. In order to do so, the organization tries to improve education methodologies to develop change of habits and knowledge acquisition9.ltimertabsa.tk
Use of participative methodology in oral health education for adolescents
In this manner, the present study is intended for describing a model of participative methodology used by the AOC for oral health care of adolescents. For purposes of acquisition of interest themes and educational activities planning used the technique of focal group. It was formed a single group composed by the 16 adolescents participating in the research, a coordinator, and a note taker to write the speeches down.
By asking an open question, the coordinator approached the importance of the oral health for the group. This was a minute discussion phase, carried only in the first meeting of AOC volunteers and teenagers. Education activities were performed throughout ten meetings planned in a way to stimulate discussion and the relationship among themes pointed in the focal group, with basic concept approaches on oral health. It was used the following resources: videos, songs, paper, pencil, pen, and overhead projector. By the end of each meeting, the teenagers were asked to produce their own material, and in the last meeting.
By the end of each meeting, the teenagers were asked to produce their own material.
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In the last meeting a textbook was produced with no interference of the AOC team. In order to evaluate the educational methodology, it was used the material autonomously developed by the adolescents and the analysis of the result of an objective survey applied one month after the completion of the project. This evaluation made use of the methodology described by Tomita et al.
They were group in four categories which received scores from 0 to 3 according to the following criteria: 0 - no content drawing; 1 - poor content drawing; 2 - some content drawing; 3 - very rich content drawing, clear and objective concepts. The questionnaire was formulated in order to contemplate the three major themes discussed during the educational activities: oral health, cavity, and self-care. The analysis was carried out according to the percentage of question hits.
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It was also considered the object answer of the adolescents themselves to one question about the assessment of the educational activity. The initial question of the focal group was "How important is oral health for you? In this manner, it was possible to identify themes which draw the attention of teenagers such as problems bad breath generates in a love relationship, and the ratio between problems to get a job and poor oral health, then linking them to basic concepts approach on plaque, cavity, gum and periodontal diseases, diet, oral hygiene, and fluor.
Given the initial diagnosis, ten meetings were held by the AOC team and the teenagers of the Projeto Casulo. Every meeting, different resources were used in order to stimulate the interest of the teenagers such as clips available on-line and songs with the above theme, and AOC team never presented information in only one expositive format, such as a speech.
Teenagers were constantly stimulated to take part on the discussion, and by the end of each meeting, they produced their own educational material, for example, coloring pages and games, all created under the orientation of AOC and containing the theme discussed in the correspondent meeting Pictures of the meetings and the material produced were published in the web blog of the association.
In the last meeting, with no interference of the AOC team, they decided to collectively produce a comic book, using language and situations suitable for adolescents, in order to deal with the theme. Each individual illustrated and reported part of a story, and in the end of it, it was described a technique of teeth brushing and flossing accordingly to what they learned so far Figure 1. This comic book was analyzed by using the methodology described by Tomita et al. The analysis of the questionnaire to evaluate knowledge, applied a month after the end of the project, it was demonstrated that some answers focused on themes towards which they developed educational material, especially in what concerns self-care.
Some myths were still kept that is the case of the necessity to stop brushing if the gum starts bleeding , however, for a lower percentage of adolescents Table 1. The study is a convenience sample, thus the methodology used to assess oral health education may not be appropriate to other groups. According to data from the institution, there are families in Real Parque.
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